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Higgs Boson Borexino Geo-Neutrino Particles Weak Nuclear Force Yukawa Gluons Neutron Decays 5g WOW SETI

August 18, 2012

Higgs Boson Borexino Geo-Neutrino Particles Weak Nuclear Force Yukawa Gluons Neutron Decays 5g WOW SETI

Inside the scintillator at Borexino. (Credit Borexino Collaboration)

Inside the scintillator at Borexino. (Credit Borexino Collaboration)

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Science News
… from universities, journals, and other research organizations

Physicists Detect Rare Geo-Neutrino Particles, Peek Into Earth’s Core
ScienceDaily (Mar. 29, 2010) — Using a delicate instrument located under a mountain in central Italy, two University of Massachusetts Amherst physicists are measuring some of the faintest and rarest particles ever detected, geo-neutrinos, with the greatest precision yet achieved.

The data reveal, for the first time, a well defined signal, above background noise, of the extremely rare geo-neutrino particle from deep within Earth.

Geo-neutrinos are anti-neutrinos produced in the radioactive decays of uranium, thorium, potassium and rubidium found in ancient rocks deep within our planet.

These decays are believed to contribute a significant but unknown fraction of the heat generated inside Earth, where this heat influences volcanic activity and tectonic plate movements, for example.

Borexino, the large neutrino detector, serves as a window to look deep into the Earth’s core and report on the planet’s structure.

Borexino is located at the Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso underground physics laboratory in a 10 km-long tunnel about 5,000 feet (1.5 km) under Gran Sasso, or Great Rock Mountain, in the Appenines and operated by Italy’s Institute of Nuclear Physics.

The instrument detects anti-neutrinos and other subatomic particles that interact in its special liquid center, a 300-ton sphere of scintillator fluid surrounded by a thin, 27.8-foot (8.5-meter) diameter transparent nylon balloon.

This all “floats” inside another 700 tons of buffer fluid in a 45-foot (13.7-meter) diameter stainless steel tank immersed in ultra-purified water. The buffering fluid shields the scintillator from radiation from the outer layers of the detector and its surroundings.

The scintillator fluid is so named because when neutrinos pass through it, they release their energy as small flashes of light. Neutrinos and their antiparticles, called anti-neutrinos, have no electric charge and a minuscule mass.

Except for gravity, they only interact with matter via the weak nuclear force, which makes them extremely rare and hard to detect, as neutrinos do not “feel” the other two known forces of nature…

Read more at:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100329083039.htm

Key words:

sphere of scintillator fluid
Anti-neutrinos
Electric charge
Mass
Gravity
Interact
Matter
Weak nuclear force

Key word to Google:
Weak nuclear force

strong force nucleus strength range particle glons nucleons

strong force nucleus strength range particle glons nucleons

Quote:

Yukawa modeled the strong force as an exchange force in which the exchange particles are pions and other heavier particles. The range of a particle exchange force is limited by the uncertainty principle.

It is the strongest of thefour fundamental forces
Since the protons and neutrons which make up the nucleus are themselves considered to be made up of quarks, and the quarks are considered to be held together by the color force, the strong force between nucleons may be considered to be a residual color force.

the standard model, therefore, the basic exchange particle is the gluon which mediates the forces between quarks.

Since the individual gluons and quarks are contained within the proton or neutron, the masses attributed to them cannot be used in the range relationship to predict the range of the force.

When something is viewed as emerging from a proton or neutron, then it must be at least a quark-antiquark pair, so it is then plausible that the pion as the lightest meson should serve as a predictor of the maximum range of the strong force between nucleons.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/funfor.html

quotes are for research purposes only…

The sketch is an attempt to show one of many forms the gluon interaction between nucleons could take, this one involving up-antiup pair production

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The sketch is an attempt to show one of many forms the gluon interaction between nucleons could take, this one involving up-antiup pair production and annililation and producing a π-bridging the nucleons.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/funfor.html

charges electromagnetic quarks strong leptons weak interaction diagram

electromagnetic weak between quarks nucelons strong interaction diagram

electromagnetic weak between quarks nucelons strong interaction diagram

electron positron attraction annihilation pair production compton scattering diagram

decay of neutron

neutron up down quark mass

Neutron decay via weak interaction

Neutron decay via weak interaction

electron antineutrino

electron antineutrino

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