CERN Large Hadron Collider uses 8 Billions EV Beams Creates Higgs Boson Particle 18 June 2012
The structure of the barrel accordion calorimeter. The presampler is in front of the accordion. To achieve a low capacitance of the detecting elements and thereby a fast signal the lead plates have an accordion shape as shown in fig. 4.5.
The structure of the barrel accordion calorimeter. The presampler is in front of the accordion.
To achieve a low capacitance of the detecting elements and thereby a fast signal the lead plates have an accordion shape as shown in fig. 4.5.
The Large Hadron Collider at Cern, where scientists continue their hunt for the Higgs particle.
Kohlenstofffasermatte metal matrix resin carbon fiber filaments composite materials
The Large Hadron Collider at Cern, where scientists continue their hunt for the Higgs particle.
the standard model and the higgs boson force carriers bosons fermions quarks leptons electron muon tau neutrino down up charm strange bottom top photon z boson w boson gluon higgs boson
The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, where scientists continue their hunt for the Higgs particle. Photograph- Mark Thiessen-National Geographic Society-Corbis
Quotes Research notes:
Two beams of protons circulate around the 27km circumference of the Large Hadron Collider tunnel under the Franco-Swiss border. Those protons moving clockwise collide, head on, with those moving anticlockwise and the collisions take place in the middle of cavernous detectors.
The scientists working on two of these detectors have made it their immediate priority to find the much vaunted Higgs particle and, towards the end of last year, the first, tentative, evidence of the particle’s existence was made public.
Fabiola Gianotti (Italian pronunciation: [faˈbiola dʒaˈnotːi]) (born 1962) is an Italian particle physicist, in charge of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, considered the world’s biggest scientific experiment.
Gianotti holds a Ph.D. in experimental sub-nuclear physics from the University of Milan, Italy. She joined CERN in 1987, working on various experiments including the UA2 experiment and ALEPH on the Large Electron Positron collider, the precursor to the LHC at CERN. Her thesis was on data analysis for the UA2 experiment.
Gianotti began working on liquid-argon calorimetry at the LHC in 1990 and continued that work for ATLAS when the collaboration began in 1992. Gianotti also worked on LEP2’s supersymmetry search between 1996 and 2000.
Gianotti is also a member of the Physics Advisory Committee at Fermilab, the particle physics laboratory at Batavia, Illinois. A trained pianist, she has a professional music diploma from the Milan Conservatory.
17 August 2012 12 19 am edt
CERN UA2 Experiment – Liquid Argon Calorimetry at LHC, ATLAS, LEP2’s Supersymmetry search, all your data needs to be combined with WOW SETI data video formula’s in Lines 17 to 22 ( as of 16 August 2012.)
Liquid Argon Calorimetry
The liquid argon calorimeter
For the electromagnetic calorimeter in ATLAS is chosen a liquid argon sampling calorimeter. Layers of lead/stainless steel and liquid argon are interspaced. The lead gives the shower development with its short radiation length and the secondary electrons create ionisation in the narrow gaps of liquid argon. An inductive signal from the ionisation electrons drifting in the electric field across the gas-gap is registered by copper electrodes.
Figure 4.5: The structure of the barrel accordion calorimeter. The presampler is in front of the accordion.
To achieve a low capacitance of the detecting elements and thereby a fast signal the lead plates have an accordion shape as shown in fig. 4.5. At the same time this creates a fully homogeneous calorimeter in the
coordinate. In the central rapidity region there are four samplings:
A single thin layer of argon but no lead absorber in front. The purpose is to correct for the energy loss in the Inner Detector, solenoid and cryostat wall.
The first sampling has a depth of 4.3 radiation lengths. The readout is, as seen in fig. 4.5, in thin
strips i.e. each strip has the size (
) = (0.0031 x 0.098) . This provides an excellent resolution in the
coordinate for photon/
coordinate is not suited for this since converted photons will open up in the magnetic field and produce clusters with widths similar to
The majority of the energy is deposited in the 16 radiation lengths of the second sampling. Clusters with energy below 50 GeV are fully contained and the noise can be reduced by not adding the 3rd sampling. For the position measurement of the cluster the 2 coordinates are equally important resulting in square cells of size (
) = (0.0245 x 0.0245) .
Only the highest energy electrons will reach this deep in the detector. The clusters are at this point wide and the cell size can be doubled in the
direction without loss of resolution.
In the end-cap there is less material in front of the calorimeter and the presampler can be avoided. The end-cap EM calorimeters start at |
| = 1.5 and continue down to |
| = 3.2 but with an increased cell size above |
| = 2.5 . There is a crack with bad energy resolution where the end-cap and barrel calorimeters meet. A large effort has gone into reducing the size of the crack while still leaving space for cables and cooling for the Inner Detector.
The resolution of the EM calorimeter is
with energies measured in GeV. The sampling term a is defined by the number of lead/argon interfaces and is 8-11% depending on rapidity. Noise influences the resolution at the lowest energies through the term b which is of the order 400 MeV when running at high luminosity. The constant term affects the resolution for high energy clusters and is limited by the calibration of the global energy scale and local variations in this. It is hard to predict but is believed to stay below 0.7%
To withstand the high radiation levels in the forward region the hadronic calorimeter is also of liquid argon type in the end-caps. The design is simpler than the EM calorimeter and has parallel copper plates as absorbers placed perpendicular to the beam.
The very forward hadronic calorimeter with a coverage down to |
| = 4.9 is made of copper/tungsten. The choice of copper/tungsten is necessary to limit the width and depth of the showers from high energy jets close to the beam pipe, and to keep the background level low in the surrounding calorimeters from particles spraying out from the forward region. The calorimeter is a metal matrix with cylindrical holes. The holes have rods inside with a slightly smaller radius allowing for a liquid argon gap of just 250
m. The small gap limits the sensitivity to pile-up effects which are large close to the beam pipe where energetic jets often hit the same area of the calorimeter.
Next: The tile calorimeter Up: The calorimeter Previous: The calorimeterUlrik Egede
Quarks UP + Muon + metal matrix + cylindrical holes
Cross reference WOW DATA
Metal matrix and 14 videos are found…
4 square root 528 symbols meaning
Key number is 4278784
Quote from data in WOW video
4278784 Patent | Encapsulated electronic devices and encapsulating …
said resin encapsulated electronic devices are amazingly lessened in formation of cracks by thermal stress and have high reliability.
My thoughts.. Is this is some sort of formula for a space travel vehicle and this is what they use so no cracks happen from thermal stress.
Google metal matrix resin
A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials
Composite materials, often shortened to composites or called composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure.
Process for the preparation of fibre reinforced metal matrix composites and …
James Garfield Robertson A process for the preparation of a fiber reinforced metal matrix composite comprising fibers embedded in a metal in which the process comprises forming a body with a layer of aligned fibers
› Overview between at least two layers of metal foil and densifying said layers wherein the layer of aligned fibers comprises metal particles interposed between individual fibers, the metal particles being compatible with the metal foil.
Drawings A preform for a fiber reinforced metal matrix composite is also claimed which comprises a resin and a layer of aligned fibers, the layer having metal particles interposed between adjacent fibers and the layer and particles being bonded together with the resin.
Claims Inventor: James Garfield Robertson
Original Assignee: The Secretary of State for Defence in Her Britannic Majesty’s Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Patent number: 5933703 Primary Examiner: Chrisman D. Carroll
Filing date: Nov 18, 1997 Current U.S. Classification: 428/549; 428/551; 428/567; 428/568; 428/607; 428/608
Issue date: Aug 3, 1999 International Classification: B22F 100; B22F 500
View patent at USPTO
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1. A preform body for a fibre reinforced metal matrix composite which comprises a resin and a layer of aligned fibres, said layer having metal particles interposed between adjacent fibres and said layer and particles being bonded together with said resin, said layer containing 0.5-20 wt % metal particles by weight fibres.